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These courses facilitate clinical reasoning and its application gastritis diet ýëüäîðàäî discount prevacid 15mg without a prescription, based upon an understanding of efficient functional movement gastritis diet bland prevacid 30mg line, the systems control of movement and the principles of motor learning gastritis pdf discount prevacid 30mg overnight delivery. Individuals with neurological pathology take part in the courses and contribute to the educational experience gastritis diet ginger order prevacid 15mg otc. The popularity of the courses has continued to grow and therapists often ask whether there is a textbook they can refer to in order to support their learning. It is with this in mind that this book has been written, so that it can be a reference for therapists to develop a deeper insight into the clinical application of the Bobath Concept. This book is intended to provide both undergraduate and postgraduate health professionals with many of the elements felt to be important in understanding the clinical reasoning process used in the application of the Bobath Concept. The book is structured in such a way that the first four chapters guide the reader in gaining an understanding of the current theory before moving to the application of the Bobath Concept into clinical practice. Chapter 8 considers the 24-hour approach of the Bobath Concept to neurorehabilitation and the need for exploring partnerships in the rehabilitation setting. The aim of this book is to provide the therapist with an understanding and ability to apply the principles of the contemporary Bobath Concept and to promote and enable greater clinical effectiveness and to optimise the functional outcome for all patients in the area of neurorehabilitation. The primary objective is to improve the quality of life of all the patients we treat. Linzi Meadows is a Clinical Director of the Manchester Neurotherapy Centre and Neurological Teaching Centre and an Advanced Bobath Tutor. Jenny Williams is a Senior Physiotherapist at the Stroke and Head Injury Clinic in Warrington and a Bobath Tutor. Helen Lindfield is Principal Physiotherapist at the Wolfson Rehabilitation Centre, Wimbledon and a Bobath Tutor. Debbie Strang is a Team Lead Physiotherapist at Hairmyers Hospital, Glasgow and a Bobath Tutor. Lynne Fletcher is a Clinical Director of the Manchester Neurotherapy Centre and Neurological Teaching Centre and an Advanced Bobath Tutor. Catherine Cornall is a Physiotherapy Clinical Specialist at the National Rehabilitation Hospital, Dun Laoghaire, Ireland and a Bobath Tutor. Ann Holland is a Clinical Specialist (Physiotherapy) at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery at Queens Square, London and a Bobath Tutor. Mary Lynch-Ellerington is a Fellow of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy and a Senior Bobath Instructor. Janice Champion is a Specialist Clinician at Medway Maritime Hospital, Gillingham, Kent and a Bobath Tutor. Christine Barber is the Director of Therapy Services at the Bobath Centre for Children with Cerebral Palsy and Adults with Neurological Disability and a Bobath Tutor. For their contribution to Chapter 3 we thank Ann Holland and Liz Mackay, and for Chapter 7 we thank Lynne Fletcher. For data collection and analysis with Chapter 6 we thank Professor Jon Marsden and Dr Gita Ramdharry. We feel privileged to have had Professor Raymond Tallis write the foreword of this book. Our very special thanks are owed to the patients and their families who have kindly allowed their case histories and aspects of their clinical treatment to form such a major part of this book. The Bobath Concept: Developments and Current Theoretical Underpinning Sue Raine Introduction There are a number of neurological approaches used in the management of the patient following a neurological deficit. The Bobath Concept is one of the most commonly used of these approaches (Davidson & Walters 2000; Lennon 2003), and it offers therapists working in the field of neurological rehabilitation a framework for their clinical interventions (Raine 2006). This chapter will provide the reader with an overview of the Bobath Concept including the founders of the approach and its inception, the theoretical underpinning and its application into clinical practice. The founders and development of the Bobath Concept Karel Bobath was born in Berlin, Germany in 1906, and trained there as a medical doctor, graduating in 1936. Her early training was as a remedial gymnast, where she developed her understanding of normal movement, exercise and relaxation (Schleichkorn 1992). In London Mrs Bobath trained as a physiotherapist, graduating from the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy in 1950 (Schleichkorn 1992). Dr Bobath started his career working in paediatrics and later more specifically with children with cerebral palsy (Schleichkorn 1992). Prior to the 1950s, conventional neurological rehabilitation had a strong orthopaedic bias, and promoted the use of massage, heat, passive and active movement techniques such as the use of pulleys, suspension and weights (Partridge et al. Splints and walking aids such as calipers and tripods were provided to enable the patient to function. Stroke sufferers at that time presented with the same stereotypical spastic patterning, with flexion of the upper limb and extension of the lower limb (Bobath 1970). The hemiparetic upper limb, a non-functional appendage, and the lower limb acting as a prop during ambulation. Mrs Bobath focused her treatment on the affected side, basing her interventions on her knowledge of human movement and relaxation. She observed that with specific handling, tone was changeable and that there was potential for the recovery of movement and functional use of the affected side. Mrs Bobath continued to explore and further develop these early observations and techniques into principles of treatment. Mrs Bobath developed an assessment procedure that was unique and of great significance to the advancement of the physiotherapy profession, as it moved away from the medical prescription. Working in partnership with Mrs Bobath, Dr Bobath studied and applied the available neurophysiology at that time, to provide a rational explanation for the clinical success. Together they created the Bobath Concept, a revolutionary approach which has continued to develop and help change the direction of neurorehabilitation. They described the Concept as hypothetical in nature, based on clinical observations, confirmed and strengthened by the available research (Schleichkorn 1992).
When the hip adductor muscles are shortened gastritis with duodenitis order prevacid with visa, they are more susceptible to tearing gastritis english quality prevacid 30 mg, which is a common occurrence when the muscle is overstretched quickly symptoms of gastritis mayo clinic purchase prevacid with american express. Chronic groin pulls gastritis diet x1 cheap prevacid 15 mg on line, or recent groin pulls that have healed to the extent that inflammation is no longer present, can be addressed. Synergists Adductor longus, adductor brevis, pectineus, and gracilis Antagonists Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fascia latae, and sartorius Palpation and Massage the adductors of the thigh are easy to palpate as a group. A: Adductor longus; B: Adductor brevis Meaning of Name Adductor refers to the adduction of hip action. Longus means longer than adductor brevis, and brevis means shorter than adductor brevis. Actions Adduct the thigh; some sources state that adductor longus and adductor brevis assist in hip flexion. Explanation of Actions Location Adductor longus and brevis are medial thigh muscles. Adductor longus is the most anterior of the adductor muscles and forms the medial border of the femoral triangle. By pulling the insertion on the linea aspera medially toward the pubis, the muscles perform adduction of the thigh. A secondary action of adductor brevis and adductor longus, thigh flexion, is possible due to the fact that the origin on the pubis is anterior to the insertion on the linea aspera, and thus these two muscles can pull the femur forward, causing hip flexion. Origin and Insertion Origin: anterior pubis Insertion: linea aspera Notable Muscle Facts the thick tendon of the origin of adductor longus makes it the most palpable tendon in the area of the anterior pubis. The deep inguinal nodes lie alongside the femoral artery within the femoral triangle. The superficial inguinal nodes are inferior to the inguinal ligament and drain to the deep inguinal nodes. Superficial lymphatic vessels Femoral artery and vein and deep lymph vessels Great saphenous vein the great saphenous vein on the medial thigh runs superiorly to join the femoral vein. Friction to the area of the tear can assist healing, limit scar tissue formation, and reduce the likelihood of repeat injury. Teaching your client to provide self-massage to the hip adductor muscles can be a useful way to address the more proximal aspect of these muscles. Synergists Adductor magnus, pectineus, and gracilis Antagonists Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fascia latae, and sartorius Palpation and Massage the adductors of the thigh are easy to palpate as a group. Anterior, superior pubis Pectineus Origin Insertion Near linea aspera of femur (not visible) Origin and Insertion Origin: superior pubic ramus Insertion: pectineal line on the proximal, posterior femur Actions Flexes and adducts the thigh Explanation of Actions Because the origin on the superior pubis is anterior and superior to the insertion on the femur, the femur is pulled anteriorly, causing flexion of the hip. In addition, the origin is medial to the insertion on the pectineal line of the femur. Notable Muscle Facts this muscle is designed to accomplish its actions of adduction and flexion with power, rather than speed. Implications of Shortened and/or Lengthened/ Weak Muscle Shortened: A shortened pectineus can cause an anterior pelvic tilt. In addition, when pectineus is shortened, one has limited ability to abduct the thigh and assumes a posture in which the feet are close together. When any of the hip adductor muscles are shortened, they are more susceptible to tearing, which is a common occurrence when a muscle is overstretched quickly. It may be best to teach your client to apply friction to this muscle on his or her own, rather than for you to touch this sensitive area so close to the genital area. Many times, it is more appropriate to teach self-massage to a client rather than massage in this delicate area. Synergists Adductor magnus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, and gracilis Antagonists Palpation and Massage this muscle lies right in the femoral triangle and thus is difficult to palpate or massage due to the femoral artery, vein, and nerve in this area. Find the inguinal ligament just lateral to the pubic symphysis, and palpate just inferior to the inguinal ligament. Anterior pubis Origin and Insertion Origin: body and inferior ramus of the pubis Insertion: pes anserinus Actions Adducts the hip and flexes and medially rotates the knee Gracilis Origin Insertion Explanation of Actions Gracilis is a hip adductor because the origin is medial to the insertion; thus, contraction pulls the femur medially, causing hip adduction. Gracilis crosses the posterior aspect of the knee, and its origin is above the insertion. Finally, the proximal, medial, anterior tibia is pulled posteriorly, thus causing the tibia to rotate medially. Notable Muscle Facts Gracilis is the second longest muscle in the body, next to sartorius. Gracilis has a role in stabilizing the medial aspect of the knee, due to the placement of its tendon of insertion. Implications of Shortened and/or Lengthened/ Weak Muscle Shortened: Limited ability to abduct the thigh is noted. Lengthened: Due to the relative weakness of this muscle, lengthening of gracilis results in no substantial loss of function. In fact, gracilis is a common muscle for surgeons to use in muscle replacement surgery, especially to replace a muscle in the hand. Innervation and Arterial Supply Innervation: obturator nerve Arterial supply: deep femoral and obturator arteries How to Stretch this Muscle Abduct the thigh. Location In the lateral hip, gluteus minimus covers a sizable portion of the external surface of the ilium. Posterior illium Gluteus minimus Origin Insertion Origin and Insertion Origin: external surface of the lateral ilium Insertion: greater trochanter Anterior surface of greater trochanter Actions Gluteus minimus and gluteus medius perform the same actions: abduction and medial rotation of the hip. Thus, the greater trochanter is pulled out to the side, resulting in hip abduction.
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It consists of the right and left pleural cavities and mediastinum (the portion of tissues and organs that separates the left and right lung) gastritis diet 4 idiots generic prevacid 15 mg online. Abdomino-pelvic Cavity extends from the diaphragm inferior to the floor of the pelvis gastritis beans discount 15mg prevacid otc. It is divided into superior abdominal and inferior pelvic cavity by imaginary line passing at upper pelvis gastritis with chest pain purchase prevacid 30mg without a prescription. The pelvic cavity contains urinary bladder gastritis diet 6 small buy cheap prevacid 15mg on line, rectum, and portions of the reproductive organs. This phenomenon is called: a) Anatomical integrity c) Homeostasis e) Body stasis 3. A plane that divided the body into anterior and posterior parts is: a) Medial plane c) Sagital plane e) Oblique plane 5. Cytology: - It is a branch of science concerned with a study of cells Cell Theory explains about a) All living organisms are composed of cell and cell products. To know more about cell, we can divide the cell in to four principal parts: Plasma (cell) membrane: it is the outer lining, limiting membrane separating the cell internal parts from extra cellular materials & external environment. Cytoplasm: cytoplasm is the substance that surrounds organelles and is located between the nucleus and plasma membrane 17 Human Anatomy and Physiology Organelles: these are permanent structures with characteristic morphology that are highly specialized in specific cellular activity. Extra cellular materials are also referred to as the matrix, which are substances external to the cell surface. The quality selective permeability Movement across-cell membrane Movements a cross membrane takes place in two ways. Simple diffusion, the random movements of molecules from area of high concentration to the area of low concentration. Facilitated diffusion, larger molecules, which are not soluble in lipid need protein channel to pass through the plasma membrane. Osmosis, a special type of diffusion referring to the passage of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to lower water concentration. Filtration, small molecules pass through selectively permeable membrane in response to force of pressure. Active movements across membranes Substances move through a selectively permeable membrane from areas of low concentration on side of a membrane to an area of higher concentration on the other side. But if equilibrium reached and still more molecules are needed, they must be pumped 20 Human Anatomy and Physiology through the membrane against concentration gradient. It is thick semi transparent, elastic fluid containing suspended particles and a series of minute tubules and filaments that form cytoskeleton. It also contains solid components, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and inorganic substances. The inorganic components exist as solutions 21 Human Anatomy and Physiology because they are soluble in water. Most cell contain single nucleus but some like matured Red Blood cell do not contain. The nucleus separated from other cell structure by double membrane called nuclear membrane. Pores over the nuclear membrane allow the nucleus to communicate with the cytoplasm. In the nucleus a jelly like fluid that fill the nucleus is karylymph (neucleoplasm), which contain the genetic material called chromosome. Nucleus also contain dark, somewhat spherical, non-membrane bound mass called nucleolus. They are site of protein synthesis 22 Human Anatomy and Physiology c) Endoplasmic reticulum is a double membrane channel. Various products are transported from one portion of the cell to another via the endoplasmic reticulum. Each mitochondria posses two membrane, one is smooth (upper) membrane and the other is arranged with series of folds called cristae. The central cavity of a mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane is the matrix. They contain powerful digestive (hydrolytic 23 Human Anatomy and Physiology enzyme capable of breaking down many kinds of molecules. The lysosomal enzyme believed to be synthesized in the granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Cancer occurs when cells grows and divide at abnormal rate & then spread beyond the original site. Some of the risk factors for cancer occurrence are radiation, chemicals, extreme pressure and hormonal therapy. Tissue is a group of similar cell and their intercellular substance that have a similar embryological origin and function together to perform a specialized activity. The various tissues of the body are classified in to four principal parts according to their function & structure. They are subdivided in to: Covering & lining epithelium Glandular epithelium Covering and lining epithelium: it forms the outer covering of external body surface and outer covering of some internal organs. It lines body cavity, interior of respiratory & gastro intestinal tracts, blood vessels & ducts and make up along with the nervous tissue (the parts of sense organs for smell, 28 Human Anatomy and Physiology hearing, vision and touch).
Each end of the cell receives one partner from each pair of sister chromatids gastritis zdravlje purchase cheap prevacid line, ensuring that the two new daughter cells will contain identical genetic material gastritis jello cheap prevacid 30mg on-line. Telophase is characterized by the formation of two new daughter nuclei at either end of the dividing cell gastritis treatment and diet order prevacid cheap. These newly formed nuclei surround the genetic material gastritis quick fix order discount prevacid line, which uncoils such that the chromosomes return to loosely packed chromatin. At this point, the cell is already beginning to split in half as cytokinesis begins. Cytokinesis the cleavage furrow is a contractile band made up of microfilaments that forms around the midline of the cell during cytokinesis. Test your current level of understanding by filling in the blanks on the provided figure with the provided keywords without referencing the background information. Name one major structural similarity and one major structural difference between cells and organelles. Complete the table below to summarize the major function of each given organelle in one sentence or phrase. Match the cell cycle phase to the major cellular events by completing table below with the provided cell cycle phases. Label each of the following drawings of cells in different stages of mitosis and cytokinesis. Although there are many types of cells in the human body, they are organized into four broad categories of tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous (Figure 3. Each of these tissue types is characterized by specific functions that contribute to the overall health and maintenance of the human body. Epithelial tissue, also referred to as epithelium, refers to the sheets of cells that cover exterior surfaces of the body, lines internal cavities and passageways, and forms certain glands. Connective tissue, as its name implies, binds the cells and organs of the body together and functions in the protection, support, and integration of all parts of the body. Muscle tissue is excitable, responding to stimulation and contracting to provide movement. Nervous tissue is also excitable, allowing the propagation of electrochemical signals in the form of nerve impulses that allow communication between different regions of the body. Just as knowing the structure and function of cells helps you in your study of tissues, knowledge of tissues will help you understand how organs function. Epithelial and connective tissues will be covered in this lesson while muscle and nervous tissues will be covered in the next lesson. Epithelial Tissue Most epithelial tissues are essentially large sheets of cells covering all the surfaces of the body exposed to the outside world and lining the outside of organs. Other areas include the airways, the digestive tract, as well as the urinary and reproductive systems, all of which are lined by an epithelium. Hollow organs and body cavities that do not connect to the exterior of the body, which includes, blood vessels and serous membranes, are lined by endothelium (plural = endothelia), which is a type of epithelium. Epithelial tissue is highly cellular, with little or no extracellular material present between cells. Certain organelles are segregated to the basal sides, whereas other organelles and extensions, such as cilia, when present, are on the apical surface. The epithelial layer secretes the basal lamina, a mixture of glycoproteins and collagen, which connects to a reticular lamina secreted by the underlying connective tissue. Avascular - Epithelial tissues are nearly completely avascular, meaning that they do not contain blood vessels. All materials that enter or leave the epithelial layer must come by diffusion or absorption from underlying tissues or the surface. Regeneration - Many epithelial tissues are capable of rapidly replacing damaged and dead cells. Sloughing off of damaged or dead cells is a characteristic of surface epithelium and allows our airways and digestive tracts to rapidly replace damaged cells with new cells. The cells of an epithelium act as gatekeepers of the body controlling permeability and allowing selective transfer of materials across a physical barrier. Some epithelia often include structural features that allow the selective transport of molecules and ions across their cell membranes. Many epithelial cells are also capable of secretion and release mucous and specific chemical compounds onto their apical surfaces. Cells lining the respiratory tract secrete mucous that traps incoming microorganisms and particles. Classification of Epithelial Tissues Epithelial tissues are classified according to the shape of the cells and number of the cell layers formed (Figure 3. Cell shapes can be squamous (flattened and thin), cuboidal (boxy, as wide as it is tall), or columnar (rectangular, taller than it is wide). Similarly, the number of cell layers in the tissue can be one-where every cell rests on the basal lamina-which is a simple epithelium, or more than one, which is a stratified epithelium and only the basal layer of cells rests on the basal lamina.